|Sewer and Water Damage Restoration|
How Stuff works?
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Here are details of the plumbing and drain system of your house. It also explains that how the plumbing fixtures of your house work. Going through How stuff work page of this web site you will also learn how the clogs can occur in the drain system of your house.
Should you wish to perform your own plumbing maintenance using the information we provide on this website, please be aware that Mr Drain cannot be held responsible for any actions not taken by a trained Mr Drain's technician.
Water supply piping brings water to the house and distributes it to fixtures and appliances, including outdoor sprinklers and irrigation.
Drain and waste plumbing disposes of used water and waste.
Vent piping exhausts sewer gasses and provides proper pressure for the drainpipes.
Gas piping delivers gas to gas-fired appliances.
And some homes even have pipe systems that serve specialty needs-swimming pool plumbing and built-in vacuum piping, for example. In this section, we'll explore the various plumbing systems and fixtures of a house.
Most kitchens have a fairly simple plumbing setup that includes hot and cold water supply lines, a waste line for the sink (or sinks) and, for kitchens with a gas range, a gas supply pipe.
Many kitchens also have hookups for dishwasher, disposer, ice maker, water treatment system and/or instant hot water, but these are generally tied-in to the sink's plumbing.
The visible part of the sink's plumbing is nearly always located directly below the sink, inside the sink's base cabinet. A gas range (see below) is generally served by a flexible gas connector, controlled by a gas valve located at the wall or floor beneath the cooktop.
Beneath the sink, you can generally see two small valves: one for the hot water supply, the other for the cold. Turning these valves clockwise stops the flow of water through the flexible supply tubes that route water to the faucet.
On the faucet side of the cold-water shutoff valve, there may be other water connections too-sometimes by way of a saddle valve.
This is generally where connections are made with flexible copper or plastic tubing to serve a water treatment device, ice maker or instant-hot water dispenser.
Shutoff valves serve the hot and cold water supplies to the faucet, though some older houses don't have these. Flexible supply tubes connect the valves to the threaded tailpieces of the faucet. Faucets with a separate or integral sprayer have a sprayer hose that connects onto another tailpiece at the center of the faucet body.
Kitchen Sink Drain Plumbing
A sink drains by way of several components. The strainer fits into a strainer body that's inserted down through the sink hole and sealed with a bead of plumber's putty.
Underneath are a rubber gasket and metal washer and a large locknut or retainer tightens the body in place. A straight tailpiece mounts to the strainer body with a threaded coupling.
Slip joint couplings connect the tailpiece, the main parts of the trap and a short threaded nipple at a tee in the drainpipe.
At the wall or the back of the cabinet, a trim piece called an escutcheon hides the connector and the nipple. The trap, always filled with water, seals the pipe so sewer gasses won't enter the house.Waste water exits through the trap, down the vented drain pipe to the main stack.
A garbage disposal, if there is one, mounts directly to a special strainer body. The trap then connects to an outlet on the disposal.
Kitchen sinks may have single or multiple bowls in a variety of shapes and sizes. They're mounted in three different ways, depending upon the type: self rimming, flush or under-mounted.
Self rimming sinks have a molded edge that overhangs the countertop. Flush sinks are supported by metal strips around the perimeter or are an integral part of the countertop material. Rimless or under-mount sinks are fastened or fused to the underside of the countertop.
Bathroom Sink Plumbing
A sink drain has a flange that is sealed to the sink hole with a bead of plumber's putty. This flange is screwed into the drain body, which is tightened to the underside of the sink bowl with a locknut.
The tailpiece, which may contain a pop-up stopper, attaches to a drain trap with slip-joint couplings.
The sink trap remains filled with water so sewer gasses won't enter; it's connected to a threaded nipple inserted in a T in the drain line. An escutcheon trim hides the connection.
A mechanical pop-up stopper is operated by a system of levers and rods. If this isn't working properly, the solution is usually just a matter of adjusting the clevis screw or the position of the pivot rod.
Kitchen Sinks and Materials
As the central fixture in the most active room of the house, the kitchen sink sees plenty of action. Day in and day out, it is the focal point of food preparation and cleanup. Accordingly, kitchen sinks are made to be both attractive and extremely durable.
And of course, modern sinks no longer consist of a simple faucet and bowl. They have multiple bowls of various sizes and shapes and are designed with integral drainers, cutting boards, soap dispensers, instant hot water dispensers, purified water taps, sprayers and more.
Sinks are made of stainless steel, enameled metal, solid surfacing (countertop-type) materials and quartz composites.
Stainless steel sinks are made in many sizes and several thicknesses, measured by gauge. (The lower the number, the thicker the material.) For durability and resistance to denting, scratching and staining, 18-gauge or thicker is best.
Enamel on cast iron or steel sinks are made in an assortment of colors. They're easy to keep clean but their heavier weight calls for strong countertops. Cast iron
Click Image to Enlarge
Click Image to Enlarge
Flexible supply tubes carry water from shutoff valves at wall to threaded tailpieces on the faucet base.
Kitchen and Bathroom Faucets
Though there are hundreds of different styles, colors and shapes of faucets, the working mechanisms of nearly all can be grouped into four main types: cartridge, compression, ball and disc.
These names refer to the parts that actually control the flow of water through a faucet.
Three of these-cartridge, ball and disc faucets-are mixing faucets. They normally have a single handle or control, though cartridge and disc types are also made with two handles. The compression faucet has two controls-one for hot, the other for cold.
Compression faucets have washers or seals that close against a valve seat to restrict water flow through the faucet body when you turn the handle off. The other three types don't use washers for the off-and-on action, though they do have O-rings and neoprene seals to prevent leaking. They're referred to as "washerless."
Because washers and seals wear out with use-resulting in the familiar drip, drip-washerless faucets are generally favored.
See the listing at far right for more about faucet workings. If you have a faucet that leaks or drips, chances are good that the washers, seals or O-rings have become worn and simply need to be replaced. If you do the work, be sure to turn off the water to the faucet first, using the shutoff valves beneath the sink.
A disc faucet, shown at right, utilizes two discs-a movable, upper disc and a fixed lower one. When the movable disc is turned from side to side or lifted and lowered against the lower disc, it regulates the flow of water through inlet and outlet holes.
If this type of faucet leaks, the culprits are usually the inlet and outlet seals or sediment buildup in the inlets. Handle should be in "on" position when repairing a disc faucet to prevent cracking the replacement seals.
This has a hollow metal or plastic cartridge insert that seals against the spout or faucet body. Depending upon how a series of holes in the cartridge align with the stem, water is mixed and controlled. Leaks are generally caused by worn or broken O-rings; drips usually mean cartridge needs replacement.
A compression faucet has two separate handles. When the handle is turned, it raises or lowers the washer or seal at the base of the stem. As this seal opens or closes against the valve seat, it allows or restricts water flow through the faucet.
How Bathtubs and Showers Work
Bathtubs and showers are fundamentally very simple appliances designed to contain water and a person or two and to drain spent water into the sewer system. Of course from those basics, a world of possibilities has been developed. Bathtubs and showers are made in many different types, sizes, shapes, colors and configurations.
Bathtubs may be either built-in or freestanding. Built-in tubs range from familiar tub/shower combinations to ultra modern, computerized whirlpool tubs that automatically deliver and maintain a given water temperature. Freestanding tubs come in many styles too, from classic claw-footed tubs to elegantly sleek, jetted models.
The best bathtubs are made from enameled cast iron. Though they're incredibly heavy, particularly in large sizes, cast iron tubs have deep, durable finishes. Tubs made from acrylic that's reinforced with fiberglass are also good and, because they're lighter and more easily molded, acrylic tubs tend to come in larger, more intricate styles than cast-iron. Some tubs are also made of fiberglass, but this tends to fade in direct sunlight and scratch a little too easily.
Showers may be built-in or prefabricated. Built-in showers are essentially small rooms with walls of tile, stone or some other waterproof material and a glass door that slides or swings open.
The floor may be a one piece unit made of plastic or some type of solid-surfacing material.
Or it may be tile or a similar material with a pan that's flashed and hot-mopped using methods similar to those used on a flat roof.
Prefabricated showers, like bathtubs, are made from fiberglass-reinforced acrylic or fiberglass and come in a wide range of colors and styles. Some are made as single, one-piece units that are installed during construction and others are made as modular units consisting of a base and three walls.
Bathtubs are either freestanding or built into a three-wall alcove. Conventional length of a bathtub is 5 feet but they're made up to 7 feet long. A wide range of widths and depths is available.
Showers may be installed as a single unit, a modular set or custom built-in. It's critical that the shower pan at the base doesn't leak over time-this would rot the floor-so some type of waterproofing system is employed during construction.
Bathtubs and Shower Drains
Tub drains have two legs, one to the main drain opening and the other to the overflow drain opening. To close and open the drain, two different assemblies are common: pop-up and plunger-type.
Both are operated by a trip lever at the overflow drain. With a pop-up drain, linkage forces the drain stopper up or down by way of a rocker arm. With the plunger-type, a hollow brass plunger slides up and down inside the drain assembly to seal the drain opening.The simple but ingenious mechanics of the toilet have changed very little since the earliest "water closet" was invented by Thomas Crapper in the nineteenth century. The toilet, though not one of the more glamourous of home fixtures, is designed to do a very specific job-to carry away waste and prevent sewer gasses from entering the house. And unless something goes wrong with a toilet, it handles its role adroitly.
Opening the back lid, it's easy to be intimidated by all of those strange-looking parts. But a toilet actually operates quite simply.
As shown in the drawing, a toilet has two main parts made from vitreous china: a tank and a bowl. Some toilets are cast as a single piece; others are made in two separate parts that are joined together.
When a toilet is ready for use, both tank and bowl are partly filled with water. Passages between the bowl and the closet bend (the top of the waste pipe) form a trap that remains filled with water at all times, blocking the rise of sewer gasses.
When you flush the trip lever, it lifts a stopper between the tank and bowl, called a flush valve, letting the water in the tank flow into the bowl. The pressure of the cascading water forces the bowl's water and waste down the waste pipe. The water flowing into the bowl also cleans the bowl. The bowl's water is replenished by water entering from the tank through a refill tube.
As the tank of a conventional toilet empties, a float ball drops, activating the ballcock (simply a water valve), which releases water into the tank. Some new ballcocks operate on water pressure-they don't have a float ball. The water is delivered to the ballcock through a supply tube that's connected to a valve at the wall or floor. When turned clockwise, this valve will shut off the flow of water to the tank.
To prevent overflow and flooding, the top of the overflow tube is open and acts as a drain if the tank's water level rises too high.
Older toilets use 5 to 7 gallons of water to complete the flushing action, wasting a lot of water. All new toilets are made to use a maximum of 1.6 gallons or less per flush.
A minimum-flush mechanism seals the flush valve seat when the tank is still partially full, keeping full pressure on the flush but using less water.
A pressure-activated ballcock is activated by a drop in the tank's water pressure. This type, easily adjusted to deliver various amounts of water to the tank, eliminates the need for a float.
The cut-away view shown at top shows
relationship of tank to bowl and
how the toilet's base forms a
trap to block sewer gasses. Flush
handle raises trip lever, raising
the flush valve or seat ball from
the flush valve seat, letting
water rush into the bowl. Stop
valve at the wall delivers water
through a supply tube to the ballcock.
When the float ball drops, the
ballcock opens, filling the tank
until the ball floats back to
its upper position. Overflow tube
sends excess tank water to bowl.
Refill tube replenishes water
The conventional float-ball, lift wire and tank ball mechanism has been the standard flushing device for many years.
Fundamentally, a water heater is an appliance that converts energy to heat and transfers that warmth to water.
It's connected to a cold water supply pipe and has an outgoing hot water pipe-or system of pipes-that supplies heated water to one or more taps and appliances. A conventional water heater stores heated water in a cylindrical tank. The less-common tankless water heater doesn't store water-it routes heated water straight to taps or appliances.
The majority of water heaters are fueled by natural gas, though propane and electric water heaters are not unusual. Where natural gas is available, it is a much less expensive heat source than electricity.
Small "instant hot-water dispensers" are simply miniature electric water heaters that serve only one faucet. They have a small, under-sink tank that heats and holds nearly-boiling (about 190-degree) water and delivers it under low pressure through a separate sink-top spout.
A conventional gas-fueled water heater warms water with a burner beneath the tank. Natural gas (or propane or kerosene, in some cases) is piped to a gas valve. A thermostat detects the temperature of water in the tank regulates fuel delivery to the burner, which is ignited by a pilot light or spark ignition. A vent collects toxic emissions from the burner and pipes them up through the tank, out the top and normally up through the roof. Some newer, high-efficiency water heaters have fan-assisted vents that can be piped out through a wall.
A heavy electrical cable delivers energy to heating elements in an electric water heater. Electric water heater doesn't create combustion gasses, so no vent is required. They typically have one 5500-watt or, for faster heating, two 4500-watt elements. Separate thermostats control each element, cycling on as needed.
A tankless water heater circulates water through a series of burners or electric coils when you turn on a hot water faucet or appliance. Because the water heater doesn't store hot water, it costs less to operate and doesn't run out of hot water unless the flow exceeds its heating ability. Capacity is measured by how many degrees it increases water temperature at a given flow rate, typically expressed in gallons per minute (gpm).
Because the tank is under pressure, hot water exits through the hot water outlet at the top of the tank. When hot water leaves, cold water enters through a diffuser dip tube that extends down inside the tank. The cold water pipe normally has a shutoff valve. A magnesium or aluminum anode rod utilizes the principle of ionization to minimize corrosive elements in the water that shorten tank life. The larger the anode, the longer a tank is likely to last.
The drain valve at the water heater's base is used for draining the tank or flushing sediment. This important maintenance should occur one or twice a year, according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
A temperature and pressure relief (T & P) valve near (or on) the top of the tank opens automatically if temperature or pressure exceed safe levels. This should be tested periodically, according to manufacturer's directions.
Plumbing systems are composed of pipes and fittings. Metal or plastic pipes are joined by a variety of fittings designed to couple lengths in a straight line, turn corners, branch in two directions, reduce or enlarge pipe size or connect to some type of fixture.
Pipes are made from several different metals and plastics. You can often identify a pipe's purpose by its size and makeup: indoor water supplies generally are copper or galvanized iron pipe in diameters of 1/2 inch, 3/4 inch or 1 inch; some water supplies in these diameters are made of plastic pipe. Gas piping also this size, but is usually made of black (uncoated) or galvanized iron pipe.
Smaller-diameter, flexible copper or plastic tubing is used for water supplies that feed ice makers, hot-water dispensers, water filters and the like. Fittings may be brass or plastic. You'll also find flexible (sometimes ribbed) pipes serving from a small wall valve to toilets and faucets and flexible piping rated for delivering gas from valves to water heaters, dryers and other gas appliances.
Larger-diameter pipes, from 1 1/2 inches to 4 inches, handle drain, waste and vent (DWV) piping. A 4-inch or larger plastic or cast-iron pipe usually serves the main soil stack, the waste and vent line that serves toilets and other bathroom fixtures. Pipes that are 1 1/2 inches and larger in diameter generally serve other waste and vent lines; light-gauge plastic pipe from 1 1/4-inch to 1 1/2-inch diameter is sometimes used for built-in vacuum cleaning systems.
Plastic pipe is used in many plumbing applications because it's relatively inexpensive, easy to install and impervious to corrosion. In some locations, plastic pipe is not allowed by codes for supply piping.
Rigid pipe may be PVC (polyvinyl chloride) for cold water or DWV plumbing, CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) for hot and cold water and ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) for DWV piping. Flexible plastic tubing is made from PB (polybutylene) and PE (polyethylene). Plastic pipe is rated for the pressure it can handle; this rating is stamped on the outside of the pipe.
Rigid copper pipe is widely preferred for water supply piping. It's sturdy and durable, resists mineral buildup and can handle both cold and hot water. Hard supply pipe is sold in three thicknesses: M (thin wall), L (medium wall) and K (thick wall). Most above-ground plumbing is Type M.
Soft copper supply pipe is more expensive than hard copper pipe but is flexible enough to be routed without as many fittings. Type L (medium wall) is more commonly used than Type M (thick wall) forabove-ground applications.
Copper pipe may be joined with permanently soldered fittings or flare/compression fittings that can be disassembled.
Galvanized iron pipe and fittings were standard for water supply plumbing before 1960 and are still common. The galvanized zinc coating on the outside of this pipe resists rust and corrosion but insides of pipes clog up with mineral deposits and corrode over time. Water-tight connections are made with threaded fittings. Larger-diameter galvanized iron pipe is used for vent plumbing in some houses.
To prevent corrosion from electrolysis that occurs when two dissimilar metals are joined together, a dielectric union should be used anywhere copper is connected to an iron pipe.
Cast iron pipe is a strong, durable material used for drain, waste and vent (DWV) plumbing. Two types are common: the older "hub" or "bell-and-spigot" type that is joined together with lead and oakum and newer "no-hub" or "hubless" fittings that are connected with special rubber gaskets and stainless steel band clamps.
Drain, Waste, and Vent Plumbing Systems
The system of large-diameter pipes that carries water and wastes to the sewer line or septic tank is called the drain, waste, vent or DWV system. As its name implies, this system has three important components.
Drain lines collect water from sinks, showers and tubs; waste lines carry wastes from toilets; and vent lines exhaust sewer gasses and provide the necessary air pressure to allow wastes to flow freely.
All drain and waste lines slope slightly downward from the fixture toward the sewer or septic system. Water and wastes are carried by simple gravity.
The pipes are large in diameter-typically 1 1/4 inches to 4 inches-to minimize the possibility of blockages.
The main soil stack for toilets is normally a 4-inch pipe; showers usually have 2-inch pipe drains. Sinks, lavatories, bathtubs and laundry tubs may be served by 1 1/4-inch to 2-inch pipes.
Though older homes may have pipes made of lead, most drain piping is cast iron, plastic or-in some houses-copper. Some vent pipes are galvanized iron.
To operate properly and safely, each drain must be served by a vent line that carries sewer gasses out through the roof.
Several vents may be connected together and joined to the soil stack as long as there is no drain above the connection point. Or vents may pass through the roof on their own.
All waste lines should have cleanouts at easily-accessible locations. A cleanout is simply a Y-shaped fitting in the line that is capped off. If a blockage occurs, this is the easiest place for a plumber to snake out the line.
To prevent sewer gasses and odors from entering the house, drains are protected by traps. A trap is a curved section of drain pipe that fills up with water, providing a seal.
Drains that penetrate a wall have a P trap and those that go through the floor have an S trap. The water held by the trap is replaced each time the fixture is used.
To prevent sewer gasses and odors from entering the house, drains are protected by traps. A trap is a curved section of drain pipe that fills up with water, providing a seal.
Drains that penetrate a wall have a P trap and those that go through the floor have an S trap. The water held by the trap is replaced each time the fixture is used.
Water Supply and Service
Water travels under pressure through a system of pipes to your home.
Here you can trace the route of municipal water from the street to your house; for information on how it's delivered to various fixtures and appliances within your house.
The water company uses a water meter to measure how much water you use (unless your water use isn't tracked). This meter is often buried in a housing with a removable lid, located in front of the house, near the street. In cold-winter areas, it may be inside the basement or crawl space-often placed where the meter reader can check it monthly without disturbing you. The water company delivers water to the meter through a large pipe called a main, which often parallels the street.
The water meter measures the amount of water that flows to your house.
Dials or a digital readout on the meter record how many cubic feet of water travel through the meter. The company meter reader records the numbers each month and the company computes the difference between last month's and this month's readings to figure your bill. Reading a digital meter is easy-just like reading a car's odometer. To read a dial-type meter, record the smallest of the two numbers near the tip of each needle.
A main shutoff valve is often located on each side of the water meter. The one on the street side is the water company's valve-the one used to shut off the system when they want to work on or change your meter. The other one controls water that flows to your house. This is your main shutoff; turning it completely clockwise will stop all water flowing through your water supply system-both indoors and outdoors.
A gate valve, used as main shutoff valve, is designed to be
used either completely open or
closed. As you open the valve,
a tapered wedge retracts from
the water channel into valve's
body, allowing water to flow.
When closed, the wedge creates
a seal. Other valves control the
flow of water through parts of
your supply system. A valve near
the house may shut off all water
indoors; another may control all
· Also known as a force cup or a plumber's friend.
· Used to clear blockages in toilets sinks and tubs.
· Combination plungers (usually black in color) consist of two cups, one inside the other.
· Recommend combination plungers for clearing toilets.
· Also known as a snake.
· Consists of a coiled spiral cable, usually 1/4î thick and of varying lengths.
· The most basic type has a z-shaped handle used to crank the cable as it snakes through the drain.
· Another type uses a funnel-shaped container to store the cable and then to spin it as it works its way through the drain.
· Professionals use an auger attached to a drill or other device that spins the cable. Usually these versions can maneuver a much longer cable.
· Also known as a toilet auger.
· Used for clearing toilets. Better than a regular auger because it is more rigid.
· Consists of a short cable with a crank.
· The handle is covered with a rubber sleeve to protect the porcelain in a toilet bowl.
· An alternative to the auger, but not as effective in difficult blockages.
· A flat metal band with a hook on one end
· Used to clear stopped-up drains by chemical action. Most liquid drain cleaners are heavier than water and will seek out the stoppage, even if the sink, tub or bowl is full of water.
· Cleaners are typically a combination of potassium hydroxide, which turns grease to soft soap, and thioglycolic acid, that dissolves hair. Others may contain sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid or lye.
· Toxic liquids should carry warnings and must be used with caution.
· Made of vitreous china and finished with a high-gloss glaze.
· Designed to be durable and sanitary.
· White and almond are most common colors.
· Federal law mandates that all new toilets use no more than 1.6 gallons per flush, compared to old models that used 3.5 gallons or more.
· Gravity-fed toilets operate with a conventional flush, where water draining from the tank is released into the bowl and its weight and gravity pull waste down the drain.
· Pressure-assisted units use pressure built up within the water supply to increase the force of the flush. These tend to be noisier than gravity-fed models, but the bowl empties quickly (within 4 seconds). The larger water seal surface results in fewer stains. Since the trapway on pressure-assisted models has fewer bends, it is less likely to clog than a gravity-fed system.
· A third type of toilet uses a pump to assist the flushing operation with increased pressure. Some models are even designed to flush automatically when the seat lid is closed. Dual flushers feature a lever that uses 1.6 gallons for solid waste removal and 1.1 gallons for liquid waste.
· The rough-in is the distance from the finished wall to the center of the sewer outlet. Standard rough-ins are 10", 12" or 14". Another style is the one-piece toilet
· Activates the flush valve ball.
· Usually sold in combination with the trip lever.
· Attaches with a left-handed screw, which screws on in a counter-clockwise direction.
Flush Valve Seat
· Located at the bottom of the tank.
· Surrounds the opening that lets water into the bowl.
· Kept closed by a rubber flush ball or flapper.
· The flush valve seat is attached to the Overflow Tube, which drains water back into the bowl if the water level goes above it. This is a good safety precaution if the inlet valve fails
Flapper Valve Seat Ball
· Also called a Flush Valve Seat Ball, this device sits on the flush valve seat and attaches to the trip lever with a chain, rod or guide arm.
· When the outside handle on the toilet tank is pressed down, it raises a trip lever that pulls the flapper off its seat. Water inside the tank pours through the opening to flush the toilet bowl.
· The valve stays closed with water pressure. However, once the trip lever lifts the device, it remains off the seat by floating on top of the water until the tank is empty. As the water level drops, the flapper gradually settles back into the opening, sealing it so the tank can refill for the next flush.
· A new style design has replaced the older ball-style. It is connected to the float arm with a chain and eliminates many of the problems associated with wires, rods and guide arms
· Also known as a fill valve or inlet valve.
· Controls refilling the tank.
· Consists of multiple parts, but is commonly sold as a complete unit. Parts include: upper lever, float rod, lower lever, plunger, valve seat, refill tube, nylon seat, eye screw, body, hush tube, regular shank, shank gasket, lock nut, coupling nut washer, riser pipe and repair shank.
· Older models use a float ball. When repairing them it is best to replace the entire unit instead of trying to repair its parts.
· Newer models eliminate the flat ball and may have an anti-siphon feature that keeps toilet water from backing up into the water lines.
· Part of the Ballcock.
· When the water level raises it, it shuts off the valve that lets water into the tank.
· Made of plastic or copper.
· Should be replaced if it develops cracks or corrodes and let water inside.
· Creates a secure connection between the tank and the bowl.
· Consists of long brass bolts with rubber washers and a large foam-rubber washer.
· One size fits all toilets
· Also known as a wax ring.
· Seals the joint between the toilet bowl and the drain piping in the floor.
· Some types have a plastic ring inside to add protection. For a better seal, use two rings, one on top of the other
Closet Flange Bolt
Secures the toilet bolt base
to the floor flange.
AC Toilet Water Supply
· Connects water supply to toilet.
· Flexible types are easiest to install.
· Made of plastic or kiln-dried hardwood.
· Hardware should be sturdy and non-rusting. Metal hardware should be solid brass with a quality finish.
· Some toilet seats have ìeasy-on, easy-offî hinge posts that facilitate installation by the homeowner. These hinge posts also make it practical to remove the seat for thorough cleaning.
Tubs & Showers Safety Tips
· Old cast iron bathtubs are heavy. Use at least two people to remove it and make sure to protect all of the floor surfaces as you carry it out.
· Consider adding grab bars next to the tub or toilet, a slip-resistant bottom to the tub, shower seats or transfer seats, toilet guardrails, night lights and rounded edges on vanities and doors
· The standard Drop-In tub installs within a tile or solid-surface surround within three walls of the bathroom, while the old-fashioned Clawfoot tubs are freestanding.
· Standard size for tubs is 60" wide, 30" deep and 14" high.
· Whirlpool and deep tubs are designed for soaking and relaxation. These tubs can be separate or incorporate a shower combination.
· Cast iron tubs are the most durable and do not stain or scratch easily.
· Acrylic is a better insulating material so the water takes longer to cool, and its light weight and flexibility makes it a better choice for larger tubs.
· Fiberglass tubs are easy to install, but are more apt to fade and scratch.
· Tub and shower combinations are typically made of reinforced fiberglass with a polyester finish.
· Attaches to drywall, plaster or most any solid surface.
· Comes in three or more pieces that snap or caulk together for a leak-free fit.
· Inexpensive alternative to tile and good solution for keeping bathroom walls around the shower easy to clean.
· Sell color-coordinated caulk with this product.
· Some units come in one piece, mainly for new construction or major remodels.
· Some units come in multiple pieces that snap or caulk together to be a leak free.
· Sell color-coordinated caulk with this product.
· Easy to clean and some manufacturers claim they will not chip, crack or peel.
Towel Bar/Towel Ring
· Often sold in a style that matches other bathroom accessories, and some manufacturers will match them to light fixtures.
· Mount on the wall or shower door.
· Fancier models are stand alone and heated.
· Sold in a variety of finishes.
· Installed for safety around tubs to help prevent falls.
· Also used as a handrail to help anyone who may have trouble sitting down or standing up.
· Never use a towel rod in place of a grab bar.
· Never install diagonally, as a personís hand might slide if footing isnít secure.
· An attractive alternative to shower curtains.
· Usually easy to install and require few tools.
· Door mounts on a frame that is adjustable to all standard bathtubs.
· Sell caulk with this product.
· Usually has full-range, adjustable sprays and features self-cleaning rims and swivel ball joints.
· Is typically made of chrome-plated brass or plastic. Plastic models are less expensive but also less durable.
· All new models must meet the federal standard flow rate of 2.5 gallons per minute, although some deliver a more satisfying shower than others.
· Uses water pressure forced through a diverting valve to create one or more pulsating water actions.
· In most cases, users can vary the amount of pulsing pressure or force to their liking.
· Available in hand-held or permanently mounted models. While all offer massaging action of one or more kinds, they can all be easily converted to conventional shower action.
· A versatile wall and hand shower combined.
· Some brands feature on-off flow control built into the handle, which is a brass push-button diverter valve that permits instant switch from showerhead to hand shower and a 6' flexible hose and hang-up bracket.
· It can be easily attached to existing shower arms.
Showerhead Features, Finishes and Styles
are many things in the house
that we use everyday to which
we don't give much thought.
The showerhead is certainly
one of those things. If you
are like me, the last thing
that you are thinking about
in the morning is what you could
possibly do to make your daily
shower a more pleasant experience.
Most of us just want to know
which way the coffee is. But
right now you're awake, and
if you are reading this, you
must be thinking about showerheads.
Whether you are remodeling your
entire bathroom or just thinking
about making a small improvement,
keep these options in mind as
you make a very simple upgrade
to your daily routine.
Sewage is one of the most dangerous substances that can enter buildings. Unfortunately, people don't understand the hazards that sewage creates, particularly for small children, the elderly and those with immune system or respiratory problems. The Institute of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC) offers these facts to dispel some typical myths.
Myth #1 - Sewage from oceans, lakes or rivers is clean. This water contains contaminants such as microorganisms, bacteria and pesticides. Trapped inside walls or under floor coverings, it doesn't take long to become a "smelly" health hazard.
Myth #2 - Chlorine bleach decontaminates sewage. While bleach is a remedy, it's quickly inactivated by sewage. Even dead fungi and bacteria may contain chemicals that cause an allergic response. Affected areas should be cleaned thoroughly, followed by appropriate disinfectant application.
Myth #3 - Sewage-saturated carpets can be "saved." Absolutely not! Porous materials, such as carpet, pad, upholstery, bedding, wicker, paper goods, or fabrics that can't be washed in hot water, must be disposed of safely.
Myth #4 - Partially sewage-flooded buildings are safe. Not unless contaminated areas can be sealed off to prevent cross-contamination of other areas. Only trained professionals using specialized equipment are qualified to restore sewage damage.
Complete cleaning and decontamination by a professional following the IICRC S-500 Standard for Professional Water Damage Restoration is important.
Water Systems: Pumps, Filters, Heaters and Tanks
· Water filter cartridges should be changed regularly. Once they have reached their filtering capacity, they can begin to release previously filtered substances or block water passage altogether.
· Always leave the cold water gate valve open when the water heater is in use.
· Never store combustible or flammable products, such as gasoline, paint thinner, aerosol cans, etc., in a room with a gas water heater. These items can emit vapors that may come into contact with the gas pilot light and cause a fire.
Tank Water Heater
· Can operate on either gas or electricity.
· Copper-, stone- and glass-lined water heaters perform better than unlined aluminum or galvanized steel heaters.
· A stainless steel alloy called HWT is designed to resist corrosion as well as the lined models.
· Unlined galvanized steel tanks perform least well, but they are the least expensive and may prove satisfactory in localities where the water supply does not have adverse effects on equipment.
· To stop tank corrosion, a magnesium-coated metal rod is available. It is hung inside the tank 3" or 4" away from the bottom. Because the magnesium paper eventually will be eaten away, the rod should be inspected from time to time and replaced when necessary.
· Better-grade, non-metallic gas water heaters are also popular.
· The tanks, although more expensive than metal models, are light, easy to install and corrosion-proof.
· Advise homeowners to partially drain their water heater once or twice a year to remove the accumulation of sediment, which can affect operation.
Tankless Water Heater
· Can operate on either gas or electricity.
· Tankless water heaters are small heating units that are hooked into plumbing lines and heat water only as needed. They do not store water, but heat it as it moves through the unit.
· Larger tankless heaters are installed at the point where water enters the house; smaller units are installed at the point where water is used and require more than one in a house. Some operate on house current, others on gas.
· Some of the larger units require different size plumbing lines and different size flue vents than do tank-type heaters.
· If gas-fueled, the heater must be properly vented; if electric, it may need to be wired with two units in series which may not be practical for existing home wiring. Larger units require a 220V or 240V line. Smaller units will operate on standard 110V lines.
· Tankless heaters are more expensive than tank types. However, they do produce savings in annual energy consumption and cost.
· Although tankless heaters will deliver continuous hot water, they are limited in quantity. The central units cannot support hot water demands from several points at the same time; obviously, the smaller units will heat water delivered only at the points where they are installed.
· Because of the high initial cost and the fact that American consumers are not used to the limitations these heaters place on the availability of hot water, their recommended use is to supplement existing tank-type heaters or in summer homes or locations where demand for hot water is light.
· Help remove minerals (magnesium, calcium, iron) that cause "hard" water.
· Quality water softeners have either fiberglass linings or steel tanks that have double coatings of epoxy for guaranteed rustproofing.
· Fiberglass tanks prevent electrolytic action that causes excessive rust and corrosion because there is no metal-to-metal contact. When water enters the home, it is directed into the water softener. Water passes over a mineral bed, with minerals holding the lime and magnesium present in the water.
· Chemicals in the water softener unit must be regenerated, cleaned or replaced. The regeneration process happens by reversing the flow of water through the softener tank and adding sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The reversed water flow quickly flushes accumulated minerals from the chemical
· Quality water softeners have solid brass and copper valves and bearings. Iron or steel parts are seldom used in a quality softener because salt can cause rust.
· One of the best ways to sell water softeners is to offer free tests to homeowners to determine the hardness of their water. If the water shows 8 to 10 grains hardness, a water softener is recommended to assure the home of sufficiently soft water. If tests show 15 grains of hardness, a water softener is necessary. The test is easy to conduct. Have the customer bring a sample of home water to the store; dip the specially treated paper into the water. Paper color will change depending on water hardness. Testing kits will contain hardness charts.
· Used to remove bacteria and/or chemicals suspended in water to improve its taste and smell. Filters either install under the sink or at the point where the water supply enters the building (whole-house filters). Others mount on the faucet or countertop.
· The basic types of water filtration devices are activated-carbon filters, reverse osmosis, distillation and aeration.
· Activated-carbon filters are the least expensive water filtration devices. They can remove impurities and improve water taste and odor, but do not eliminate dissolved minerals or bacteria. One solution is to combine a carbon filter with a chlorination system.
· Reverse-osmosis systems take out dissolved lead, mercury,cadmium and other heavy metals that are present in the water, but will not eliminate microorganisms. They are also relatively expensive.
· Distillation removes most impurities in the water system. Distillers work slowly and must be cleaned regularly
· Aeration reduces, but does not necessarily eliminate, the levels of iron, chlorine and other gases in the water. It works best when combined with other treatment forms.
· Some filters feature cartridges that can be cleaned and reused several times before replacement.
· Filters based on ceramic technology will remove up to 100 percent of bacteria as well as chemicals, tastes and odors. Some have proven effective in removing such contaminants as algae, chlorine and detergents found in many urban water supplies.
· Another under-sink model even reduces levels of MTBE, a gasoline additive that contaminates some wells and municipal water systems.
· Always study information about the specific filters that you are selling.
· Used to discharge ground water that accumulates around a basement that is below the water line. The basement should have a drain tile around it to collect ground water and convey it to the sump in the basement.
· A Submersible type pump is a motor and pump sealed in one unit that rests in the sump pit.
· A Pedestal pump sits in the water, but the motor is mounted on a column above the water. They are available in automatic or manual models, either gravity-fed or self-priming operation.
· Pump capacity is rated by gallons-per-hour pumped as well as lift pressure generated to how high the liquid is to be pumped. Submersible Sewage and Effluent pumps are for continuous use in moving large volumes of water containing solids.
· Some pumps have battery backup, and a combination electric and battery-powered sump pump is now available.
· Lightweight pumps used to clear flooded basements, drain low spots after a heavy rain, etc. Used by farmers, boaters and campers as well as homeowners.
· One type operates off a 12V battery and can be attached to a car, truck, tractor or boat battery.
· Another type uses a standard 115V house current.
· Most units pump from 250-500 gallons per hour and are self priming and easy to operate
· Larger than all ‑purpose pumps and often gasoline powered.
· Used to pump manholes, for irrigation and lawn sprinkling, for fire protection and as an emergency water supply during power failure.
· Capacities range up to 85 gallons per minute. Suction lifts up to 25'.
· Another type is a high pressure, hand held utility pump that adds as much as 80 lbs. to intake pressure. It operates on 115V current, and when connected to a standard garden hose, can be used to hose down hard surface driveways and window screens, to wash cars and boats and to clean animal-housing areas. They will also draw water from shallow wells, tanks, etc.
· Consists of a pump, a pressure tank and switch.
· The tank will supply water between the cut-on and cut-off pressure setting on the pump, usually 20-40 psi. While 20-40 lbs. pressure is adequate, 30-50 lbs. or 40-60 lbs. is best for home supplies. Since the tank supplies small amounts of water, the pump does not have to turn on each time a faucet is used.
· Pumps are shallow-well or deep-well. Shallow-well pumps are installed at well depths of 25' or less. Where deep-well pumps can be used in water depths of 300' or greater, depending on altitude.
· Horsepower rating determines pump size. Pumps used in theaverage home are 1/3-, 1/2-, 3/4- or 1-hp. When helping customers choose a pump, find the required capacity by counting the number of faucets in the home (count tub faucets as two) and multiplying by 60. This is the number of gallons-per-hour the pump should supply from the well. Remind customers to allow for additional appliances that use water.
· Home water-system pumps are usually centrifugal or jet. This type builds a centrifugal force, which lifts the water.
· Older homes may have a piston pump. A piston pump builds pressure that pulls water up through the casing.
· There are several important terms to know when selling a pump: Well-sized. The inside diameter of the well indicates proper size pump, ejector, cylinder or drop pipe (pipe that is lowered into well casing to transport the water) and foot valve (located at the bottom of the drop pipe to keep water from flowing backward into the well). Pumping level. The vertical distance in feet from pump to water level while the pump is operating. If pump is installed away from the well and is on higher ground, this elevation must also be included.
· Most wells draw down (water level goes down inside the well as water is pumped into the home) so this must not be confused with standing water level.
· Average discharge pressure: The usual average discharge pressure is 30 lbs., halfway between the 20-40 lb. switch setting of most water systems. When the tank is installed away from the pump at a higher level or when house or yard fixtures are above the pump and tank, a greater pressure is needed and a larger pump must be used.
· Capacity required: This is the discharge capacity of the pump in gallons per hour necessary for satisfactory service. The pump should have enough capacity so that it does not need to work more than the equivalent of two hours a day in intermittent service.
· Well points: These are used to drive wells in soil that is soft and primarily free of rock and where water is known to be close to the surface. Points are screwed onto the end of pipe to be lowered into the ground; then the point and pipe are driven into the ground with a sledgehammer or mallet. Well points have strainer baskets on the ends that sift out dirt and small stones.
· A large watertight settling tank that holds sewage while it decomposes by bacterial action.
· Made of asphalt‑ coated steel, redwood, concrete, concrete block, clay tile or brick.
· Tanks must be sized to suit the house. Two bedroom homes need minimum 750 gallon tanks, according to the U.S. Public Health Service. Three bedroom homes need 900 gallon tanks and four bedroom homes require 1,000 gallon tanks. Garbage disposers, washing machines and dishwashers are figured in this estimate.
· Household sewage flows into the septic tank and decomposes. Sludge collects on the bottom of the tank and liquid effluent flows out to a distribution system. The distribution system is a series of underground disposal lines that radiate outward from a central distribution point; the effluent seeps into the earth.
· Sludge remaining in the tank must be cleaned out periodically to prevent this layer from building up enough to cause clogging of disposal lines or household sewer lines.
· Under ordinary use, the tank may need cleaning at two to four-year intervals, but most experts recommend that the sludge level be inspected every 12 to 18 months. Inspect by opening a special manhole cover or trapdoor located at or near ground level.
· Septic tank cleaners dissolve sludge through enzyme activators that regenerate the natural bacterial activity of decomposition for which the tanks were designed. These natural bacterial activators continue from the tank into the drain and tile field.
Water Well Checkups are a Must
What if you never changed your car oil or looked under the hood? How long would your car last?
When it comes to water wells, many well owners pay little attention to maintenance and water quality. Yet, it's just as important. Few things are more vital than the water you and your family drink. A water well checkup by a qualified contractor will help ensure a reliable supply of fresh drinking water.
"If it's important, you schedule it," said Kevin McCray, National Ground Water Association executive director. "That's what we do with dental checkups, pediatric visits, even cars under warranty. Since the water you drink is important, we encourage all well owners to mark a date on the calendar each year to call and schedule a well checkup."
For many well owners, that time could be now. The National Ground Water Association (NGWA) recommends a well maintenance check and water test at least every 12 months. If you haven't done so, now is a good time for a well checkup before a problem occurs, McCray said.
According to NGWA, a well checkup should include:
Your septic system needs bacteria to break down organic matter to keep itself alive and efficient. Today's cleaner and detergents are hard to digest and can kill the bacteria that are needed, Every time you shower, wash clothes, or dishes, you send high concentrations of detergents into your septic or greywater system. Disinfectants, deodorant soaps, toilet bowl cleaners and even mouthwash kill the beneficial bacteria. These pollutants pass through your septic tank, leach field and eventually into the environment. Contaminated leach fields and dry well become "bio-dead" and prevent the ground from absorbing and breaking down effluents.
Until now, the only products available to the consumer were "extended" powders or "water down" liquids with low bacteria populations or "counts." These products are limited to digesting proteins, starches and fats.
ONE FLUSH Septic & Plumbing Energizer Concentrate was originally designed for industrial and municipal waste treatments facilities. Eight different strains of bio-genetically engineered bacteria digest and biodegrade proteins, starches, fats and paper. Compounds such as detergents, hydrocarbons, sulfur and phenols are toxic to ordinary bacteria. ONE FLUSH bacteria digest and biodegrade these pollutants and prevent them from harming your systems and the environment.
The efficiency and versatility of ONE FLUSH make it essential for preventing and solving many problems around the kitchen, bathroom, laundry room, yard and garden, RV's and camps. ONE FLUSH can be used for septic and greywater systems, cesspools, dry wells, leach fields, drains, garbage disposals, grease traps, outhouses, RV and pit toilets, manure pits, lagoons and even to make compost.
Forget Ordinary Powders and Liquids
Commonly available powders contain ordinary bacteria from low to very low concentrations. A recent analysis revealed all other products tested had more aerobic bacteria than anaerobic bacteria. Aerobic (air present) bacteria are useful for certain applications. Anaerobic (air absent) bacteria are the ones needed most for septic systems. If you compare the numbers in the Anaerobic Plate Count comparison below, you will find that one half-ounce pack of ONE FLUSH contains as many bacteria as 109 pounds of RID-X. Enforcer has 10% of the number of bacteria in ONE FLUSH.
Ordinary liquids are usually watered down and sometimes formulated with detergents, glycols and perfumes. Going back to the comparison chart that one half-ounce pack of ONE FLUSH contains as much anaerobic bacteria as 30 quarts of Roebic K-37.
Forget Once-A-Year Treatment
You cannot depend on one product to maintain your septic system after a full year's abuse. A monthly maintenance approach prevents problems, restore your system, and biodegrades pollutants before they enter the environment.
The above values were obtained from an analysis performed by an independent laboratory. ROEBIC is a registered trademark of ROEBIC Laboratories, Inc. RID-X is a registered trademark of Reckitt & Benckiser Inc ZEP/ENFORCER is a registered trademark of Zep/Enforcer Products Inc.
The Difference Between ONE FLUSH & Ordinary Bacteria
Not only are there more bacteria in ONE FLUSH. they are better. ONE FLUSH bacteria are more efficient and more effective than ordinary bacteria. They actually digest pollutants that kill ordinary bacteria.
you live in a home that was
built in the past 50 or 60 years,
your water supply is quite likely
built of copper tubing. In earlier
days, iron pipe was the standard
for residential construction,
but iron is heavy, awkward to
work with and requires a lot
of specialized tools like pipe
threaders - plus the fact that
it deteriorated over time meant
it wasn't always the best option.
Copper, on the other hand, is
light, relatively easy to work
with and doesn't deteriorate
over time. So copper pipe has
become the standard for water
supply pipes in most of the
· Rigid copper pipe is good for new installation. Soft or flexible copper pipe is good for repair work since it can bend around obstacles without multiple cuts and joints.
· Type K is heaviest, used in municipal, commercial, residential and underground installation; Type L is medium weight and is the most commonly used in residential water lines; Type M is hard and thin.
· Recommended for light domestic water lines and not permitted in some city codes or for underground use.
· Common sizes are 3/8", 1/2 and 3/4".
· Refrigeration tube has moisture removed and ends sealed for better performance of refrigerants. Often used in heater connections but may corrode. For heater connections, use flexible brass or aluminum.
· Larger sizes also used for DWV (drain-waste-vent) applications.
· PVC stands for Polyvinyl Chloride.
· Used for carrying cold water, irrigation, as conduit and for DWV (drain-waste-vent) projects.
· Rated by thickness and strength. Common ratings (thickest to thinnest) are Schedule 40 (most common), Class 315, Class 200 and Class 125 (generally used for irrigation).
Available in sizes from 1/2"
to 2". White in color
· CPVC stands for Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride.
· Used for both hot and cold water supply or chemical distribution systems.
· Good for temperatures at 200° F in pressure systems and non-pressure systems.
Requires special solvent cement
that is different from cement
used for other types of plastic
solvents. Most solvents will
indicate this on the can.
· Means Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene.
· Made from a thermoplastic resin. Lightweight and easier to use than metal pipe.
· Commonly used for DWV (drain-waste-vent) applications or for underground electrical conduits.
· Available as either solid wall or cellular core construction
Black Poly Pipe
· Used for carrying low-pressure cold water. Common applications include golf course sprinklers, underground conduits or to carry corrosive liquids and gases.
· Good chemical and crush resistance.
· Lightweight enough to cut with an ordinary knife or a fine-toothed hacksaw blade.
· PEX stands for crosslinked polyethylene.
· Chief advantage is its flexibility and strength. It can make turns around corners without couplings.
· In a PEX plumbing system, a separate line is run from the main water supply to each fixture in a set up much like a circuit breaker box.
· Used for carrying hot and cold water.
· Excellent chemical resistance to acids and alkalis, but do not use for fuel oil, gasoline or kerosene systems.
· Do not weld with solvents. Join with heat fusion, flare, crimp ring or compression fittings.
· Has zinc coating that prevents rust if not scratched.
· Use primarily for carrying water or waste. Do not use for gas or steam.
· Common water sizes are 3/8", 1/2", 3/4" and 1". Common waste sizes are 1-1/2", 2" and 3".
· Often sold in pre-threaded standard lengths, or can be custom threaded.
· Use only with similar galvanized pipe fittings, not with black pipe fittings.
· Measured using the I.D. (inside diameter)
Black Iron Pipe
· Not treated for rust resistance.
· Used for carrying steam or gas.
· Used only with black iron pipe fittings, not galvanized fittings.
· Measured using the I.D. (inside diameter).
Water Supply Tube
· Used to connect a water supply line to a faucet fixture, toilet or appliances. Several types available.
· Plastic type is flexible and inexpensive but not designed for exposed connections.
· Ribbed chrome type bends easily without kinking.
· Braided type features pre-attached connector nuts at both ends and can be flexed to fit.
· Chrome-plated copper or brass tubes are more rigid than other types and are good for exposed applications.
· The most common size is 3/8", with lengths ranging from 6" to 72".
· Economical and used in a variety of applications.
· Usually joined with pressure fittings and clamps
· Installed under sinks and tubs to route wastewater to the drain.
· Bridges the gap between the sink tailpiece and the drain line.
· The bend in the trap uses gravity to hold water and prevent sewer gas from seeping into the house.
· Attach using slip nuts
· Three configurations include: P trap, S trap and J bend.
· Most common sizes are 1-1/4" and 1-1/2".
· Also available is a trap with flexible tubes that help in connecting misalignments of the tailpiece and the drain line.
· Available in plastic and chrome-plated brass
· Uses an overflow opening to control draining in a tub.
· The Spring type consists of an assembly controlled by a lever that moves a pop-up plug up and down. It is easiest to install, especially in retrofits.
The Weight type consists of
an assembly that controls a
weight that lifts up or down
out of the drain hole. It is
also controlled by a lever.
· Also known as a P.O. drain.
· Controls the mechanism in a lavatory sink with a plug that can open or close the drain.
· Solvent chemicals for joining PVC and other solvent welded pipe and fittings have fumes, so use plenty of ventilation when using them.
· When sweating a joint, use a flame shield to keep the propane flame from setting fire to surrounding areas, such as wooden floor joists.
· Use safety glasses or goggles, especially when soldering or applying pipe glue to a joint above your head. Also, be sure to wear a hat and gloves.
· Always use lead-free solder on water lines
· Used to join copper pipe.
· Unthreaded. Joined by soldering, or sweating, using flux, solder and a torch.
· Most commonly used in steel fittings, but some plastic and copper fittings will be threaded.
· Uses pipe dope or PTFE tape on the threads when joining to prevent leaks and corrosion.
· If the threads are on the interior, the fitting is female. If the threads are on the exterior, the fitting is male.
· IPS means Iron Pipe Size, and also refers to threaded pipe.
· MIP means Male Iron Pipe size. It refers to a male threading that will fit an IPS pipe.
· FIP means Female Iron Pipe size. It refers to a female threading that will fit an IPS pipe.
Solvent Weld Fitting
· Used for unthreaded plastic pipe
· Has specially-formed sockets into which plastic pipe is inserted.
Bonded with cement that is compatible
to the type of plastic being
· Achieves a watertight seal by tightening a nut, which compresses a ring onto the pipe.
· Avoids threading, gluing or soldering a pipe connection.
· Used with water supply tubes or other unthreaded ends of pipe.
· Can also be used to connect two different types of pipe, such as plastic and copper.
Can be removed and reinstalled
· Operates the same as a compression fitting, but one end of the pipe is flared.
Used in refrigeration, small
appliances and oil heating
· Sometimes used with flexible plastic pipe.
· Inserted onto the pipe and compressed and sealed with an adjustable clamp.
· Any kind of fitting that helps connect two different types of tubing, such as copper and galvanized steel, or threaded and solvent weld, or two different sizes that are usually incompatible.
· A dielectric fitting connects pipe of dissimilar metals (such as copper and galvanized metal) to prevent corrosion in the copper pipe.
· Two main types, reducers and bushings, are used to convert from one size to another
· Short lengths of flexible and soft plastic that is very flexible and forgiving.
· Generally used for drain fittings in repair applications or to tie into existing drainage systems.
· Fits over an existing pipe and tightens with a clamp.
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